Treaty Information

The New Brunswick Association of Metis and Non-Status Indian, now the New Brunswick Aboriginal Peoples Council was formally organized in May, 1972 when an interim Executive was elected. In August, 1972 the organization became an incorporated non-profit organization under the laws of New Brunswick. The founding assembly was held at the Lord Beaverbrook Hotel in Fredericton with 20 delegates in attendance. The organization has grown significantly over the years. There are 16 locals at present time.
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The New Brunswick Aboriginal Peoples Council is affiliated with a national organization, The Congress of Aboriginal People, formerly the Native Council of Canada. Their office is located in Ottawa, Ontario, representing over 1,034,260 Off-Reserve Aboriginal People across Canada.

In the Province of New Brunswick we are organized in community local organizations as well as a provincial body for the purpose of administration and communications, and the province is broken down into seven zones. A Board of Director is elected from each zone.

When the organization was formed in August of 1972 the only funding received was a grant from the Department of Secretary of State which paid for Executive and Communication Fieldworkers and the cost of running an office. Over the years the organization has endeavoured to improve the social and economic standards of the Off-Reserve Aboriginal People of New Brunswick, and in so doing we have implemented long term programs such as Housing, Economic Development, etc. We have had in operation many short projects which afforded the organization the opportunity to do feasibility studies, prepare information packages, audio visual presentations, brochures, and many other historical and educational aids vital to the strength and positions of the Off-Reserve Aboriginal People of New Brunswick.

The organization has also taken a high profile politically, making presentations on our Inherent Right to Self-Government, and have done extensive Housing surveys and have presented comprehensive briefs to both Provincial and Federal Governments.

Treaty of 1725

The submission and agreement of the Delegates of the Eastern Indians

(December 15, 1725, Boston, New England, British possession)

Whereas the several Tribes of the Eastern Indians viz the Penobscot, Narridgwolk, St. Johns Cape Sables & other Tribes Inhabiting within His Majesties Territorys of New England and Nova Scotia, who have been Engaged in the present War, from whom we Sauguaaram alias Loron Arexus Francois Xavier & Meganumbe are Delegated & fully Impowered to Enter into Articles of Pacification with His Majties Governments of the Massachusetts Bay New Hampshire & Nova Scotia Have contrary to the several Treatys they have Solemnly Entered into with the said Governments made an open Rupture & have continued some years in Acts of Hostility Against the subjects of His Majesty King George within the said Governments, They being now sensible of the Miseries and Troubles they have involved themselves in, and being Desirous to be restored to His Majesty's Grace & Favour & to live in Peace with all His Majesties Subjects of the said three Governments & the Province of New York and Colonys of Connecticut & Rhode Island, and that all former Acts of Injury be forgotten Have Concluded to make and we Do by these presents In the Name and behalf of the said Tribes make our Submission unto His Most Excellent Majesty George by the Grace of God of Great Britain France and Ireland King Defender of the Faith & C. in as full and ample manner as any of our Predecessors have heretofore done.
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And we do hereby Promise and Engage with the Honorable William Dummer Esqr as he is Lieutenant Governor & Comander in Chief of the said Province for the time being That is to say.

We the said Delegates for and in behalf of the several Tribes aforesaid Do Promise and Engage that at all times forever from and after the date of these presents We and they will lease and forbear all Acts of Hostility Injuries and Discords towards all the Subjects of the Crown of Great Britain, & not offer the lease hurt Violence or Molestation to them or any of them in their Persons or Estates, But will hence forward hold & maintain a firm and Constant Amity and Friendship with all the English and will never Confederate or Combine with any other Nation to their prejudice.

That all the Captives taken in this present War shall at or before the time of the further Ratification of this Treaty be Restored without any Ransom or payment to be made for them or any of them.

That His Majesties Subjects the English shall and may peaceable and Quietly Enter upon Improve & forever Enjoy all & Singular their rights of Land and former Settlements Properties & possessions within the Eastern parts of the said Province of the Massachusetts Bay Together with all Islands Islets, Shoars Beaches and Fishery within the same, without any Molestation or Claims by us, or any other Indians, and in no ways Molested Interupted, or disturbed therein.

Saving unto the Penoscot, Narridgewalk And other Tribes within His Majesties Province aforesaid and their Natural descendants respectively All their Lands liberties & properties not by them Conveyed or sold to, or possess'd by any of the English Subjects or aforesaid As alsot the Privlege of Fishing, Hunting & Fowling as formerly.

That all Trade and Commerce which hereafter may be allowed betwixt the English & Indians shall be under such Management & Regulation, as the Government of the Massachusetts Province shall direct.

If any Controversy of difference at any time hereafter happen to arise between any of the English & Indians for any real or supposed wrong or injury done on either side, no private Revenge shall be taken for the same, but proper Application shall be made to His Majesty's Government upon the place for remedy or Redress there in a due Course of Justice we submit Our selves to be Ruled and Governed by His Majesties Laws and desiring to have the Benefit of the same.

We also the said Delegates in behalf of the Tribes of Indians Inhabiting within the French Territorys who have assisted us in this War, for whom we are fully Impowered to Act in this present Treaty. Do hereby Promise and Engage that they and every of them shall henceforth lease and forbear all Acts of Hostility Force & Violence towards all and every the Subjects of His Majesty the King of Great Britain.

We do further in behalf of the Tribe of the Penobscot Indians Promise & Engage That if any of the other Tribes Intended

to be included in this Treaty, shall notwith standing refuse to Confirm & Ratify this present Treaty Entered into on their behalf & Continue or renew Acts of Hostility against the English in such case the said Penobscot Tribe shall Joyn their Young Men with the English in reducing them to reason.

In the next place we the aforenamed Delegated Do Promise and Engage with the Honorable John Wentworth Esqr as he is Lieutt Governor & Comander in Chief of His Majesties Province of New Hampshire & with the Governors & Comanders in Chief of the said Province for the time being, That we & the Tribes we are Deputed from, willhenceforth lease & Forbear all Acts of Hostility Injuries and Discords towards all the subjects of His Majesty King George within the said Province. And we do understand and take it that the said

Government of New Hampshire is also Included and Comprehend in all and every the Articles aforegoing, Excepting that respect the Regulating the Trade with us.

And further we the aforenamed Delegates Doe Promise & Engage with the Honoble Lawrence Armstrong Esqr Lt Governor & Comander in Chief of His Majesties Province of Nova Scotia or Accadie to live in peace with his Majesty's Good Subjects & their Dependants in that Government according to the Articles agreed upon with Majr Paul Mascarene Commissioner

for that purpose & further to be Ratified as mentioned in the said Articles.

That this present Treaty shall be Accepted Ratified & Confirmed in a Public and Solemn Manner by the Chiefs of the several Eastern Tribes of Indians Including therein at Falmouth in Casco Bay so time in the Month of May next In whereof we have signed these present Affixed our Seals.

Dated in the Council Chamber in Boston in New England the fifteenth day of December Anno Domini One thousand seven hundred and Twenty five Annoq. RRS Georgii Magna Britanix &c Duodecimo.

Done in the presence of the Great & General Court or Assemble of

the Province of the Massachusetts Bay Aforesaid

Being first read distinctly & Interpreted by Capt. John Giles Capt. Saml Jordan & Capt. Joseph Bane sworn Interpreters.

Att J Willard Secry Sauguaaram Alt Loron Arexies Francois Xavier

Lignum Meganumbe

The Royal Proclamation

October 7, 1763

BY THE KING. A PROCLAMATION GEORGE R.

Whereas We have taken into Our Royal Consideration the extensive and valuable Acquisitions in America, secured to our Crown by the late Definitive Treaty of Peace, concluded at Paris. the 10th Day of February last; and being desirous that all Our loving Subjects, as well of our Kingdom as of our Colonies in America, may avail themselves with all convenient Speed, of the great Benefits and Advantages which must accrue therefrom to their Commerce, Manufactures, and Navigation, We have thought fit, with the Advice of our Privy Council. to issue this our Royal Proclamation, hereby to publish and declare to all our loving Subjects, that we have, with the Advice of our Said Privy Council, granted our Letters Patent, under our Great Seal of Great Britain, to erect, within the Countries and Islands ceded and confirmed to Us by the said Treaty, Four distinct and separate Governments, styled and called by the names of Quebec, East Florida, West Florida and Grenada, and limited and bounded as follows, viz.
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First-The Government of Quebec bounded on the Labrador Coast by the River St. John, and from thence by a Line drawn from the Head of that River through the Lake St. John, to the South end of the Lake Nipissim; from whence the said Line, crossing the River St. Lawrence, and the Lake Champlain, in 45. Degrees of North Latitude, passes along the High Lands which divide the Rivers that empty themselves into the said River St. Lawrence from those which fall into the Sea; and also along the North Coast of the Baye des Chaleurs, and the Coast of the Gulph of St. Lawrence to Cape Rosieres, and from thence crossing the Mouth of the River St. Lawrence by the West End of the Island of Anticosti, terminates at the aforesaid River of St. John.

Secondly-The Government of East Florida. bounded to the Westward by the Gulph of Mexico and the Apalachicola River; to the Northward by a Line drawn from that part of the said River where the Chatahouchee and Flint Rivers meet, to the source of St. Mary's River. and by the course of the said River to the Atlantic Ocean; and to the Eastward and Southward by the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulph of Florida, including all Islands within Six Leagues of the Sea Coast.

Thirdly-The Government of West Florida. bounded to the Southward by the Gulph of Mexico. including all Islands within Six Leagues of the Coast. from the River Apalachicola to Lake Pontchartrain; to the Westward by the said Lake, the Lake Maurepas, and the River Mississippi; to the Northward by a Line drawn due East from that part of the River Mississippi which lies in 31 Degrees North Latitude. to the River Apalachicola or Chatahouchee; and to the Eastward by the said River.

Fourthly-The Government of Grenada, comprehending the Island of that name, together with the Grenadines, and the Islands of Dominico, St. Vincent's and Tobago. And to the end that the open and free Fishery of our Subjects may be extended to and carried on upon the Coast of Labrador, and the adjacent Islands. We have thought fit. with the advice of our said Privy Council to put all that Coast, from the River St. John's to Hudson's Streights, together with the Islands of Anticosti and Madelaine, and all other smaller Islands Iying upon the said Coast, under the care and Inspection of our Governor of Newfoundland.

We have also, with the advice of our Privy Council. thought fit to annex the Islands of St. John's and Cape Breton, or Isle Royale, with the lesser Islands adjacent thereto, to our Government of Nova Scotia.

We have also, with the advice of our Privy Council aforesaid, annexed to our Province of Georgia all the Lands Iying between the Rivers Alatamaha and St. Mary's.

And whereas it will greatly contribute to the speedy settling of our said new Governments, that our loving Subjects should be infomed of our Paternal care, for the security of the Liberties and Properties of those who are and shall become Inhabitants thereof, We have thought fit to publish and declare, by this Our Proclamation, that We have, in the Letters Patent under our Great Seal of Great Britain, by which the said Governments are constituted. given express Power and Direction to our Governors of our Said Colonies respectively, that so soon as the state and circumstances of the said Colonies will admit thereof, they shall, with the Advice and Consent of the Members of our Council, summon and call General Assemblies within the said Governments respectively, in such Manner and Form as is used and directed in those Colonies and Provinces in America which are under our immediate Government: And We have also given Power to the said Governors, with the consent of our Said Councils, and the Representatives of the People so to be summoned as aforesaid, to make, constitute, and ordain Laws. Statutes, and Ordinances for the Public Peace, Welfare, and good Government of our said Colonies, and of the People and Inhabitants thereof, as near as may be agreeable to the Laws of England, and under such Regulations and Restrictions as are used in other Colonies; and in the mean Time, and until such Assemblies can be called as aforesaid, all Persons Inhabiting in or resorting to our Said Colonies may confide in our Royal Protection for the Enjoyment of the Benefit of the Laws of our Realm of England; for which Purpose We have given Power under our Great Seal to the Governors of our said Colonies respectively to erect and constitute, with the Advice of our said Councils respectively, Courts of Judicature and public Justice within our Said Colonies for hearing and determining all Causes, as well Criminal as Civil, according to Law and Equity, and as near as may be agreeable to the Laws of England, with Liberty to all Persons who may think themselves aggrieved by the Sentences of such Courts, in all Civil Cases. to appeal, under the usual Limitations and Restrictions, to Us in our Privy Council.

We have also thought fit, with the advice of our Privy Council as aforesaid, to give unto the Governors and Councils of our said Three new Colonies, upon the Continent full Power and Authority to settle and agree with the Inhabitants of our said new Colonies or with any other Persons who shall resort thereto, for such Lands. Tenements and Hereditaments, as are now or hereafter shall be in our Power to dispose of; and them to grant to any such Person or Persons upon such Terms, and under such moderate Quit-Rents, Services and Acknowledgments, as have been appointed and settled in our other Colonies, and under such other Conditions as shall appear to us to be necessary and expedient for the Advantage of the Grantees, and the Improvement and settlement of our said Colonies.

And Whereas, We are desirous, upon all occasions, to testify our Royal Sense and Approbation of the Conduct and bravery of the Officers and Soldiers of our Armies, and to reward the same, We do hereby command and impower our Governors of our said Three new Colonies, and all other our Governors of our several Provinces on the Continent of North America, to grant without Fee or Reward, to such reduced Officers as have served in North America during the late War, and to such Private Soldiers as have been or shall be disbanded in America, and are actually residing there, and shall personally apply for the same, the following Quantities of Lands, subject, at the Expiration of Ten Years, to the same Quit-Rents as other Lands are subject to in the Province within which they are granted, as also subject to the same Conditions of Cultivation and Improvement; viz.

To every Person having the Rank of a Field Officer-5,000 Acres.

To every Captain-3,000 Acres.

To every Subaltern or Staff Officer,-2,000 Acres.

To every Non-Commission Officer,-200 Acres .

To every Private Man-50 Acres.

We do likewise authorize and require the Governors and Commanders in Chief of all our said Colonies upon the Continent of North America to grant the like Quantities of Land, and upon the same conditions, to such reduced Officers of our Navy of like Rank as served on board our Ships of War in North America at the times of the Reduction of Louisbourg and Quebec in the late War, and who shall personally apply to our respective Governors for such Grants.

And whereas it is just and reasonable, and essential to our Interest, and the Security of our Colonies, that the several Nations or Tribes of Indians with whom We are connected, and who live under our Protection, should not be molested or disturbed in the Possession of such Parts of Our Dominions and Territories as, not having been ceded to or purchased by Us, are reserved to them. or any of them, as their Hunting Grounds.-We do therefore, with the Advice of our Privy Council, declare it to be our Royal Will and Pleasure. that no Governor or Commander in Chief in any of our Colonies of Quebec, East Florida. or West Florida, do presume, upon any Pretence whatever, to grant Warrants of Survey, or pass any Patents for Lands beyond the Bounds of their respective Governments. as described in their Commissions: as also that no Governor or Commander in Chief in any of our other Colonies or Plantations in America do presume for the present, and until our further Pleasure be known, to grant Warrants of Survey, or pass Patents for any Lands beyond the Heads or Sources of any of the Rivers which fall into the Atlantic Ocean from the West and North West, or upon any Lands whatever, which, not having been ceded to or purchased by Us as aforesaid, are reserved to the said Indians, or any of them.

And We do further declare it to be Our Royal Will and Pleasure, for the present as aforesaid, to reserve under our Sovereignty, Protection, and Dominion, for the use of the said Indians, all the Lands and Territories not included within the Limits of Our said Three new Governments, or within the Limits of the Territory granted to the Hudson's Bay Company, as also all the Lands and Territories lying to the Westward of the Sources of the Rivers which fall into the Sea from the West and North West as aforesaid.

And We do hereby strictly forbid, on Pain of our Displeasure, all our loving Subjects from making any Purchases or Settlements whatever, or taking Possession of any of the Lands above reserved. without our especial leave and Licence for that Purpose first obtained.

And. We do further strictly enjoin and require all Persons whatever who have either wilfully or inadvertently seated themselves upon any Lands within the Countries above described. or upon any other Lands which, not having been ceded to or purchased by Us, are still reserved to the said Indians as aforesaid, forthwith to remove themselves from such Settlements.

And whereas great Frauds and Abuses have been committed in purchasing Lands of the Indians, to the great Prejudice of our Interests. and to the great Dissatisfaction of the said Indians: In order, therefore, to prevent such Irregularities for the future, and to the end that the Indians may be convinced of our Justice and determined Resolution to remove all reasonable Cause of Discontent, We do. with the Advice of our Privy Council strictly enjoin and require. that no private Person do presume to make any purchase from the said Indians of any Lands reserved to the said Indians, within those parts of our Colonies where, We have thought proper to allow Settlement: but that. if at any Time any of the Said Indians should be inclined to dispose of the said Lands, the same shall be Purchased only for Us, in our Name, at some public Meeting or Assembly of the said Indians, to be held for that Purpose by the Governor or Commander in Chief of our Colony respectively within which they shall lie: and in case they shall lie within the limits of any Proprietary Government. they shall be purchased only for the Use and in the name of such Proprietaries, conformable to such Directions and Instructions as We or they shall think proper to give for that Purpose: And we do. by the Advice of our Privy Council, declare and enjoin, that the Trade with the said Indians shall be free and open to all our Subjects whatever. provided that every Person who may incline to Trade with the said Indians do take out a Licence for carrying on such Trade from the Governor or Commander in Chief of any of our Colonies respectively where such Person shall reside. and also give Security to observe such Regulations as We shall at any Time think fit. by ourselves or by our Commissaries to be appointed for this Purpose, to direct and appoint for the Benefit of the said Trade:

And we do hereby authorize, enjoin, and require the Governors and Commanders in Chief of all our Colonies respectively, as well those under Our immediate Government as those under the Government and Direction of Proprietaries, to grant such Licences without Fee or Reward, taking especial Care to insert therein a Condition, that such Licence shall be void, and the Security forfeited in case the Person to whom the same is granted shall refuse or neglect to observe such Regulations as We shall think proper to prescribc as aforesaid.

And we do further expressly conjoin and require all Officers whatever, as well Military as those Employed in the Management and Direction of Indian Affairs, within the Territories reserved as aforesaid for the use of the said Indians, to seize and apprehend all Persons whatever. who standing charged with Treason. Misprisions of Treason. Murders, or other Felonies or Misdemeanors. shall fly from Justice and take Refuge in the said Territory. and to send them under a proper guard to the Colony where the Crime was committed of which they, stand accused. in order to take their Trial for the same.

Given at our Court at St. James's the 7th Day of October 1763. in the Third Year of our Reign.

GOD SAVE THE KING



Treaty of Watertown

Annex - Treaty of Watertown 1776

A Treaty of Alliance and Friendship entered into and concluded by and between the Governors of the State of Massachusetts Bay, and the Delegates of the St. John's & Mickmac Tribes of Indians.

Whereas the United States of America in General Congress Assembled have in the name, and by the Authority of the Good people of these Colonies Solemnly published and declared, that these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be free and Independent States; that they are absolved from all Allegiances to the British Crown; and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain is and ought to be dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States they have full power to Levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances established Commerce, and to do all other Acts and things which Independent States may of Right do;
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We the Governors of the State of Massachusetts Bay do by virtue hereof, and by the powers vested in us enter into and conclude the following Treaty of Friendship and Alliance, viz.,

1st. We the Governors of the said State of Massachusetts Bay and on behalf of said States, and the other United States of America on the one part, and Ambrose var, Newell Wallis, and Francis, Delegates of the St. John's Tribe, John Denaquara, Charles, Mattahu Ontrane, Nicholas, John Battis, Peter Andre, and Sabbatis Netobcobwit Delegates of the Mickmac Tribes of Indians, inhabiting within the Province of Nova Scotia for themselves, and in behalf of the said Tribes on the other part do solemnly agree that the people of the said State of Massachusetts Bay and of the other United States of America, and of the said Tribes of Indians shall hence forth be at peace with each other and be considered as Friends and Brothers united and allied together for their mutual defence Safety and Happiness.

2nd. That each party to this Treaty shall, and will consider the Enemies of the other as Enemies to themselves, and do hereby solemnly promise and engage to, and with each other that when called upon for that purpose, they shall, and will to the utmost of their abilities, aid and assist each other against their public Enemies, and particularly, that of the People of the said Tribes of Indians shall and will afford, and give to the people of the said State of Massachusetts Bay and the people of the other United States of America during their present War with the King of Britain, all the aid and assistance within their power. And that they the people of said Tribe of Indians shall not, and will not directly or indirectly give any aid, or assistance to the Troops or Subjects of the said King of Great Britain, or others adhering to him or hold any correspondence or carry on any Commerce with them during the present War.

3rd. That if any Robbery, or Outrage happens to be committed by any of the Subjects of said State of Massachusetts Bay, or of any other of the United States of America upon any of the people of said Tribes, and said State shall upon proper application being made, cause satisfaction and restitution speedily to be made to the Party injured.

4th. That if any Robbery, or Outrage happens to be committed by any of the said Tribes of Indians upon any of the Subjects of the said State or of any other of the United States of America the Tribe to which the Offender or Offenders shall belong, shall upon proper application being made, cause satisfaction and Restitution speedily to be made to the Party injured.

5th. That in case any Misunderstanding, Quarrel, or injury shall happen between the said State of Massachusetts Bay, or any other of the United States of America and the said Tribes of Indians, or either of them, no private revenge shall be taken but a peaceable application shall be made for Redress.

6th. That the said Tribes of Indians shall and will furnish and supply 600 Strong Men out of the said Tribes, or as many as may be, who shall without delay proceed from their several homes up to the Town of Boston within this State, and from thence shall march to join the Army of the United States of America now at New York under the immediate command of his Excellency General Washington, there to take his Orders.

7th. That each of the Indians who shall by their respective Tribes be appointed to join the Army of the United States of America shall bring with them a good Gun, and shall be allowed on Dollar of the use of it; and in case the Gun shall be lost in the service, shall be paid the Value of it. And the pay of each Man shall begin from the time they sail from Machias for Boston, and they shall be supplied with provisions and a Vessel or Vessels for their passage up to Boston. Each private Man shall receive the like pay as is given to our own private Men. The Indians shall be formed into Companies when they arrive in Boston, and shall engage, or enlist for long a time as General Washington shall want them; not exceeding the term of three years, unless General Washington and they shall agree for a longer time. And as Joseph Denaquara, Peter Andre, and Sabbatis Netobcobwit have manfully and Generously offered to enter immediately into the War they shall be sent as soon as may be to Gen. Washington to join the Army, and shall be considered as entering into our pay at the time of arrival at New York.

8th. The Delegates above named, who may return to their Homes, do promise and engage, to use their utmost influence with the Passamaquoddy, and other Neighbouring Tribes of Indians to persuade them to furnish and supply for the said service as many strong of their respective Tribes as possible, and that they come along with those of the Tribes of St. John's (and) Mickmac. And the said Governor of the said State of Massachusetts Bay to hereby engage to give to such of the Passamaquoddy or other Neighbouring Indians, who shall enter into Service of the United States of America, the same pay and encouragement, in every particular, as is above agreed to be given to the St. John's, or Mickmac Indians, and to consider them as our friends, and Brothers.

9th. That the said State of Massachusetts Bay shall, and will furnish their Tuckmaster at Machias as soon as may be with proper articles for the purpose of supplying the Indians of said Tribes with the necessities and conveniences of life.

10th. And the said Delegates do hereby annul and make void all former Treaties by them or by others in behalf of their respective Tribes made with any other power, State of person so far forth as the same shall be repugnant to any of the Articles contained in this Treaty.

In Faith & Testimony whereof we the said Governors of the said state of Massachusetts Bay have signed these presents, and caused the Seal of said State to be hereunto affixed and the said Ambrose Var, Newell Wallis, and Francis, Delegates of the St. John's Tribe, Joseph Denaquara, Charles, Mattahu Ontrane, Nicholas, John Battis, Peter Andre, and Sabbatis Netobcobwit, Delegates of the Mickmac Tribes of Indians have hereunto put their Marks, and Seals in the Council Chamber at Watertown in the State aforesaid the Nineteenth day July in the year of our Lord One thousand and seven Hundred, and seventy- six.

Treaty of 1760

Treaty of Peace and Friendship concluded with the Delegates of the St. Johns and Passamaquoddy Tribes of Indians at Halifax, February 1760

Whereas Articles of Submission and Agreement were made and concluded at Boston in New England in the Year of Our Lord 1725 by Sauguaaram alias Loron Arexus Xavier and Meganumbe, Delegates from the Tribes of Penobscott Naridgwalk St. Johns and other tribes inhabiting His Majesty's Territories of Nova Scotia and New England, in manner and form following Vizn.

Articles of Submission and Agreement at Boston in New England by Sauguaaram als Loron Arexus Francois Xavier and Meganumbe Delegates from the Tribes of Penobscot Naridgwalk St. Johns Cape Sable and other Tribes of the Indians inhabiting within His Majesty's Territories of Nova Scotia and New England.
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Whereas His Majesty King George by the Concession of the most Christian King made at the Treaty of Utrecht is become the Rightfull possessor of the Province of Nova Scotia or Accadie according to its ancient Boundaries We the said Saugaaram als Loron Arexus Francois Xavier and Megamumbe Delegates from the said Tribes of Penobscot Naridgwalk St. Johns, Cape Sables and other Tribes inhabiting within His Majesty's said Territories of Nova Scotia or Accadie and New England So in the Name and behalf of the said Tribes we represent acknowledge his Said Majesty King Georges Jurisdiction and Dominion over the Territories of said Province of Nova Scotia or Accadie and make our Submission to his Said Majesty in as ample a manner as We have formerly done to the Most Christian King.

And we further promise in behalf of the said Tribes we represent that the Indians shall not molest any of His Majesty's Subjects or their Dependants in their Settlements already or lawfully to be made or in their carrying on their Trade and other affairs within said Province.

That if there happens any Robbery, or outrage Committed by any of the Indians the Tribe or Tribes they belong to shall cause Satisfaction and Restitution to be made to the Parties injured.

That the Indians shall not help to convey away any Soldiers belonging to His Majesty's Forts, but on the contrary shall bring back any soldier they find endeavouring to run away.

That, in case of any misunderstanding Quarrel or Injury between the English and the Indians no private Revenge shall be taken but application shall be made for Redress according to his Majesty's laws.

That is the Indians have made any Prisoners belonging to the Government of Nova Scotia or Accadie during the course of the War they shall be released at or before the Ratification of the Treaty.

That this Treaty shall be Ratified at Annapolis Royal.

Dated at the Council Chamber at Boston in New England this fifteenth day of December An Dom, one thousand Seven hundred and twenty five Annog R.R. Georgy Mag Britan and Duodecimo.

Which Articles of Submission and Agreement were renewed and confirmed at Halifax in Nova Scotia in the Year of Our Lord 1749 by Joannes Pedousaghugh Chief of the Tribe of Chignecto Indians and Francois Aroudourvish, Simon Sactarvino and Jean Baptiste Maddouanhook, Deputies from the Chiefs of the St. Johns Indians in manner and form following Vizn.

I Johannes Pedoudaghugh Chief of the Tribe of Chignecto Indians for myself and in behalf of my Tribe my Heirs and their heirs for ever and We Francois Aroudorvish, Simon Sactarvino and Jean Baptiste Maddouanhook Deputies from the Chiefs of the St. Johns Indians and invested by them with full powers for that purpose Do in the most solemn manner renew the above Articles of Agreement and Submission and every Article thereof with His Excellency Edward Cornwallis Esq. Captain General and Governor in Chief in and over His Majestys Province of Nova Scotia or Accadie Vice admiral of the Same Colonel in His Majestys Service and one of his bed Chamber in Witness whereof I the said Johannes Pedousaghugh have Subscribed this Treaty and affixed by Seal and We the said Francois Aroudorvisah Simon Sactarvino and Jean Baptiste Maddouanhook in behalf of the Chiefs of the Indian Tribes we Represent have Subscribed and affixed our Seals the Same and engage that the said Chiefs shall Ratify this Treaty at St. Johns. Done in Chibucto Harbour the fifteenth of August One Thousand Seven hundred and forty-nine.

In Presence of P. Hopson, Mascarence, Robt ellison, Iam T. mercer, Chas. Lawrence, Edn How, Edm. Gorham, Benj. Green, John Salusbury, Hugh Davidson, William Steele (Members of the Council for Nova Scotia)

  • Johannes Pedousaghsigh
  • Francois Arodorvish
  • Simon Sactarvino
  • Jean Bap.t Maddouanhook

And the same was according Ratified at St. Johns in manner and form following Vizn.

The Articles of Peace on the other Side Concluded at Chibucto to the fifteenth of August One Thousand Seven hundred and forty nine with His Excellency Edward Cornwallis Esq.r Cap.t Gen. Gov.r & Commander in Chief of His Majesty's Province of Nova scotia or Accadie and Signed by our Deputies having been communicated to Us by Edward How esq.r One of His Majestys Council for Said province, and faithfully Interpreted to Us by Madam DeBelliste inhabitant of this River nominated by Us for that purpose We the Chiefs and Captains of the River St. John and places adjacent do for ourselves and our different tribes Confirm and Ratify the same to all Intents and purposes.

Given under our Hands at the River St. Johns the fourth day of September One Thousand Seven hundred and forty nine n presence of the under written Witnesses

  • Michell / Narragonis chief
  • Nicola / Neguin Capt
  • Francois / De Xavier Archibano Marqillie
  • Pierre / Alexander Margillie
  • Augustin / Meyacvet, Maitre Chief deRiv St. Jean
  • Francois / Mayanyarvet, Maitre Lerure D.
  • Rene / Neguin
  • Neptune / Pierre Paul Chief Pasmequody
  • Luafin / Papanlouet
  • Francois / Germain Capt
  • Pierre / Bennoit Capt
  • Francois / Drino Capt
  • Rene / file D'ambroise Capt

Ed.d Hon. One of His Majesty's Council

  • nath Dennal
  • John Beare
  • Joseph Winniett
  • John Wonn
  • Rob McKoun
  • Matt Winniett
  • John Phillipps

And Whereas the said Articles of Submission and Agreement, so made and concluded, renewed, confirmed and ratified have notwithstanding been since violated contrary to the good Faith therein engaged for the constant and strict Observation and performance thereof and to the Allegiance due from the said Tribes to His Majesty Our Sovereign Lord King George We Mitchel Neptune Chief of the tribe of Indians of Passamaquody, and Ballomy Gloade Captain in the Tribe of Indians of St. John's River Delegates from the said Tribes and by them fully authorised and empowered to make and conclude with His Excellency Chas Lawrence Esq.r His Majesty's Captain General and Governor in Chief of the Province of Nova Scotia or Accadie in behalf of His Majestys Government of the Said Province a Treaty for the renewal and future firm Establishment of Peace and Amity between the said Tribes of Passamaquody and St. Johns River Indians and His Majesty's other subjects and to renew the Acknowledgement of the Allegiance of the said Tribes and their engagements to a perfect and constant Submission and Obedience to His Majesty King George the Second his Heirs and Successors Do accordingly in the name and behalf of the said Tribes of Passamaquody and St. Johns herby renew and Confirm the aforesaid Articles of Submission and Agreement, and every part thereof and do so solemnly promise and engage that the same shall for ever hereafter be strictly observed and performed.

And We the said Mitchel Neptune and Ballomy Glode, for ourselves and in the name and behalf of the said Tribes of Passamaquody and St. Johns Indians Do respectively further promise and engage that no person or persons belonging to the said Tribes shall at any time hereafter aid or Assist any of the Enemies of His most Sacred Majesty King George the Second or of his Heirs and successors nor shall hold any Correspondence or Commerce with any such His Majestys Enemies in any way or manner whatsoever and that, for the more effectually preventing any such Correspondence and Commerce with any of His Majestys Enemies the said Tribes shall at all times hereafter Trafic and barter and exchange Commodities with the Managers of such Truckhouses as shall be established for that purpose by his Majesty's Governors of this Province at Fort Frederick or elsewhere within the Said Province and at no other place without permission from his Majestys Geovernment of the said Province. And We do in like manner further promise and engage that for the more effectually securing and due performance of this Treaty and every part thereof a certain Number, which shall not be less than Three from each of the aforesaid tribes, shall from and after the ratification hereof constantly reside in Fort Frederick at St. Johns or at such other place or places within the Province as shall and at no other place without permission from His Majestys Government of the said Province. And We do in the manner further promise and engage that for the more effectually securing and due performance of this Treaty and every part thereof a certain Number, which shall not be less than Three from each of the aforesaid tribes, shall from and after the Ratification hereof constantly reside in Fort Frederick at St. Johns or at such other place or places within the Province as shall be appointed for that purpose by His Majestys Governors of the said Province as Hostages, which Hostages shall be exchanged for a like Number of others or of the said Tribes when requested.

And We do further promise and engage that this Treaty and every part therof shall be ratified by the Chiefs and Captains and other principal persons of the said Tribes at Fort Frederick aforesaid on or before the 20th May next.

In Faith and Testimony whereof We have Signed these Presents and caused the Seal of the Province to be hereunto affixed, and the said Michel Neptune and Ballomy Glode have hereunto put their Marks and Seals in the Council Chamber at Halifax in Nova Scotia the Twenty third Day of February in the Year of our Lord One Thousand Seven hundred and sixty and in the Thirty third Year of His Majesty's Reign.

Treaty of Peace and Friendship concluded by [His Excellency Charles Lawrence] Esq. Govr and Comr. in Chief in and over his Majesty's Province of Nova Scotia or Accadia with Paul Laurent chief of the LaHave tribe of Indians at Halifax in the Province of N.S. or Acadia.

I, Paul Laurent do for myself and the tribe of the LaHave Indians of which I am Chief do acknowledge the jurisdiction and Dominion of His Majesty George the Second over the Territories of Nova Scotia or Accadia and we do make submission to His Majesty in the most perfect, ample and solemn manner.

And I do promise for myself and my tribe that I nor they shall not molest any of His Majesty's subjects or their dependents, in their settlements already made or to be hereafter made or in carrying on their Commerce or in any thing whatever within the Province of His said Majesty in any thing whatever within the Province of His said Majesty or elsewhere and if any insult, robbery or outrage shall happen to be committed by any of my tribe satisfaction and restitution shall be made to the person or persons injured.

That neither I nor any of my tribe shall in any manner entice any of his said Majesty's troops or soldiers to desert, nor in any manner assit in conveying them away but on the contrary will do our utmost endeavours to bring them back to the Company, Regiment, Fort or Garrison to which they shall belong.

That if any Quarrel or Misunderstanding shall happen between myself and the English or between them and any of my tribe, neither I, nor they shall take any private satisfaction or Revenge, but we will apply for redress according to the Laws established in His said Majesty's Dominions.

That all English prisoners made by myself or my tribe shall be sett at Liberty and that we will use our utmost endeavours to prevail on the other tribes to do the same, if any prisoners shall happen to be in their hands.

And I do further promise for myself and my tribe that we will not either directly nor indirectly assist any of the enemies of His most sacred Majesty King George the Second, his heirs or Successors, nor hold any manner of Commerce traffick nor intercourse with them, but on the contrary will as much as may be in our power discover and make known to His Majesty's Governor, any ill designs which may be formed or contrived against His Majesty's subjects. And I do further engage that we will not traffick, barter or Exchange any Commodities in any manner but with such persons or the managers of such Truck houses as shall be appointed or Established by His Majesty's Governor at Lunenbourg or Elsewhere in Nova Scotia or Accadia.

And for the more effectual security of the due performance of this Treaty and every part thereof I do promise and Engage that a certain number of persons of my tribe which shall not be less in number than two prisoners shall on or before September next reside as Hostages at Lunenburg or at such other place or places in this Province of Nova Scotia or Accadia as shall be appointed for that purpose by His Majesty's Governor of said Province which Hostages shall be exchanged for a like number of my tribe when requested.

And all these foregoing articles and every one of them made with His Excellency C.L., His Majesty's Governor I do promise for myself and on of sd part - behalf of my tribe that we will most strictly keep and observe in the most solemn manner.

In witness whereof I have hereunto putt my mark and seal at Halifax in Nova Scotia this day of March one thousand & c.

Paul Laurent

I do accept and agree to all the articles of the forgoing treaty in Faith and Testimony whereof I have signed these present I have caused my seal to be hereunto affixed this day of march in the 33 year of His Majesty's Reign and in the year of Our lord - 1760.

Chas Lawrence

The above Treaty was signed 15 days after the Maliseet and Passamaquoddy signed a similar worded Treaty.

Documented adhesions to this treaty were signed by the Mi'kmaq of Richibucto - March 10, 1760, Mouscadaboet - March 10, 1760, Shediac - June 25, 1761, Pokemouche - June 25, 1761, Cape Breton - June 25, 1761, Miramichi - June 25, 1761, La Heve - November 9, 1761.

In the Executive Council minutes there are also references to treaties signed with other communities though no copy of the Treaty has been found. These communities are: Chignecto - July 8, 1761 and Pictou - October 12, 1761.



Treaty of 1752

Enclosure in letter of Governor Hopson to the Right Honourable The Earl of Holdernesse 6th of Dec. 1752 Treaty or Articles of Peace and Friendship Renewed BETWEEN

His Excellency Peregrine Thomas Hopson Esquire Captain General and Governor in Chief in and over His Majesty's Province of Nova Scotia or Acadie Vice Admiral of the same & Colonel of One of His Majesty's Regiments of Foot, and His Majesty's Council on behalf of His Majesty,
AND
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Major Jean Baptiste Cope Chief Sacham of the Tribe of Mick Mack Indians, Inhabiting the Eastern Coast of the said Province, and Andrew Hadley Martin, Gabriel Martin and Francis Jeremiah members & Delegates of the said Tribe, for themselves and their said Tribe their heirs and the heirs of their heirs forever.

Begun made and Concluded in the manner form & Tenor following, viz.

1. It is agreed that the Articles of Submission & Agreements made at Boston in New England by the Delegates of the Penobscot Norridgwolk & St. John's Indians in the Year 1725 Ratifyed and Confirmed by all the Nova Scotia Tribes at Annapolis Royal in the Month of June 1726 and lately Renewed with Governor Cornwallis at Halifax and Ratifyed at St. John's River, now read over Explained & Interpreted shall be and are hereby from this time forward renewed, reiterated, and forever Confirmed by them and their Tribe, and the said Indians for themselves and their Tribe, and their Heirs aforesaid do make and renew the same Solemn Submissions and promises for the strict Observance of all the Articles therein contained as at any time heretofore hath been done.

2.That all Transactions during the Late War shall on both sides be buried in Oblivion with the Hatchet, And that the said Indians shall have all favour, Friendship & Protection shewn them from this His Majesty's Government.

3.That the said Tribe shall use their utmost Endeavours to bring in the other Indians to Renew and Ratify this Peace, and shall discover and make known any attempts or designs of any other Indians or any Enemy whatever against his Majesty's Subjects within this Province so soon as they shall know thereof and shall also hinder and Obstruct the same to the utmost of their power, and on the other hand if any of the Indians refusing to ratify this Peace shall make War upon the Tribe who have now Confirmed the same; they shall upon Application have such aid and Assistance from the Government for their defence as the Case may require.

4. It is agreed that the said Tribe of Indians shall not be hindered from, but have free liberty of Hunting and Fishing as usual and that if they shall think a Truck house needful at the River Chibenaccadie, or any other place of their resort they shall have the same built and proper Merchandize, lodged therein to be exchanged for what the Indians shall have to dispose of and that in the mean time the Indians shall have free liberty to being to Sale to Halifax or any other Settlement within this Province, Skins, feathers, fowl, fish or any other thing they shall have to sell, where they shall have liberty to dispose thereof to the best Advantage.

5.That a Quantity of bread, flour, and such other Provisions, as can be procured, necessary for the Familys and proportionable to the Numbers of the said Indians, shall be given them half Yearly for the time to come; and the same regard shall be had to the other Tribes that shall hereafter Agree to Renew and Ratify the Peace upon the Terms and Conditions now Stipulated.

6.That to Cherish a good harmony and mutual Correspondence between the said Indians and this Government His Excellency Peregrine Thomas Hopson Esq. Capt. General & Governor in Chief in & over His Majesty's Province of Nova Scotia or Acadie Vice Admiral of the same & Colonel of One of His Majesty's Regiments of Foot hereby promises on the part of His Majesty that the said Indians shall upon the First Day of October Yearly, so long as they shall Continue in Friendship, Receive Presents of Blankets, Tobacco, and some Powder & Shot, and the siad Indians promise once every year, upon the first of October, to come by themselves or their Delegates and Receive the said Presents and Renew their Friendship and Submissions.

7. That the Indians shall use their best Endeavours to save the Lives & goods of any People Shipwrecked on this Coast where they resort and shall Conduct the People saved to Halifax with their Goods, and a Reward adequate to the Salvage shall be given them.

8. That all Disputes whatsoever that may happen to arise between the Indians now at Peace and others His Majesty's Subjects in this Province shall be tryed in His Majesty's Courts of Civil Judicature, where the Indians shall have the same benefits, Advantages & Priviledges an any others of His Majesty's Subjects.

In Faith & Testimony whereof the Great Seal of the Province is hereunto appended, and the Partys to these Presents have hereunto interchangeably Set their Hands in the Council Chamber at Halifax this 22nd day of Nov. 1752 in the 26th Year of His Majesty's Reign.

  • P.T. Hopson
  • Chas. Lawrence
  • Benj. Green
  • Jno. Collier
  • Jno. Salusbury
  • Willm. Steele
  • Jean Baptiste
  • Cope X
  • Andrew Hadley X
  • Francios X
  • Gabriel X

Treaty of 1749

Ratification of 1725 Treaty

Whereas by the Articles of Peace and agreement Made & concluded upon att Boston in New England the Fifteenth Day of Decr: One Thousand Seven Hundred & twenty five by our Delegates & Representatives Sanguarum (allias Laruns) Alexis Francois Xavier & Meganumbe as appears by the Instruments then Sign'd Seal'd & Exchanged in the Presence of the Great & Generall Court or Afsembly of ye Mafsachusetts Bay by our Said Delegates in behalf of us the Said Indians of Penobscot, Norridgewolk, St Johns, Cape Sable, and the other Indian Tribes belonging to & inhabiting within these His Majesty of Great Britains Territories [of] Nova Scotia & New England & by Majr: Paul Mascarene Comifsioner from this Said Province in behalf of His Majesty by which Agreemt itt being requir'd that the Said Articles Shou'd be ratified [?] att His Majesty's Fort of Annapolis Royall Wee the Chiefs & Representatives of the Said Indians with Full Power & Authority by Unanimous Consent 2 desire of the Said Indian Tribes are Come in Complyance with ye Articles Stipulated by our Delegates as aforesaid and do in Obedience thereunto Solemnly Confirm & ratifie y e Same & in Testimony thereof with Hearts full of Sincerity. Wee have Signed & sealed the following Articles being Conform to what was requir'd by the Said Majr Paul Mascarene & Promife to be perform'd by our Said Delegates.
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Whereas His Majesty King George by the Concefsion of the Most Christian King made att the Treaty of Utrecht is become ye Rightfull Profsefsor of the Province of Nova Scotia or Acadia According to its ancient Boundaries wee the Said Chiefs & Representatives of ye Penobscott, Norridgewolk St. Johns, Cape Sables, & of the Other Indian Tribes Belonging to & inhabiting within This His Majesties Province of Nova Scotia or Acadia & New England do for our Selves & the Said Tribes Wee represent acknowledge His Said Majesty King George's Jurisdiction & Dominion Over the Territories of the Said Province of Nova Scotia or Acadia & make our Submifsion to His Said Majesty in as ample a Manner as wee have formerly done to the Most Christian King.

That the Indians shall nott molest any of His Majesty's Subjects or their Dependants in their Settlements already made or Lawfully to be made or in their carrying on Their Trade or Other Affaires within the Said Province.

That If there Happens any robbery or outrage Committed by any of Our Indians the Tribe or Tribes they belong to Shall Cause Satisfaction to be made to ye partys Injur'd.

That the Indians Shall nott help to convey away any Soldiers belonging to His Majesty's Forts butt on the Contrary Shall bring back any Soldier they Shall find Endeavouring to run away.

That in Case of any Mifsunderstanding Quarrell or Injury between the English & the Indians no Private revenge Shall be taken, butt Application Shall be made for redrefs According to His Majestys Laws.

That if any English Prisoners amongst any of our aforesaid Tribes wee faithfully promifs that the said Prinsoners shall be releas'd & Carefully Conducted & Deliver'd up to this Governmenmt, or that of New England.

That in Testimony of our Sincerity wee have for our Selves & in behalf of Our Said Indian Tribes Confirmes to what was Stipulated by our Delegates att Boston as aforesaid this day Solemnly Confirm'd & ratified each & ratified each & every One of the aforegoing Articles which Shall be Punctually observ'd & duly perform'd by Each & all of us the Said Indians.

IIn Wittnefs Whereof wee have before the [?] [?] John Doucett & Councill for this His Majesty Said Province & the Deputies of the ffrench Inhabitants of Sd Province hereunto Sett our Hands & Seals att Annapolis Royall this 4th Day of June 1726 & in the Twelveth Year of His Majestys Reign.